Toyama has its own airport, from which buses run to the city center (25 min, ¥400). Toyama Kitokito Airport has international flights to Shanghai, Seoul, Vladivostok, and Dalian and local service to Tokyo, Sapporo, and Fukuoka. However, flight schedules change heavily with the season so it would be worth checking out in advance what is available for when you will be traveling. With the recent start of the Hokuriku Shinkansen and relative inaccessabilty except by car or bus, the burden is on Toyama airport to keep customers. When travelling to Toyama on a budget, be sure to check flight prices to see if you can't get a cheaper deal over the Shinkansen.
From Tokyo Station, Toyama can be reached in just over two hours by taking the Kagayaki service on the recently opened Hokuriku Shinkansen line. At approximately 310 km, a one-way trip regularly costs ￥12,730 for a reserved seat, ￥17,360 for Green Class, or ￥25,580 for a "Gran Class" seat, though JR Rail Pass holders pay no extra costs for a basic reserved seat, though the use of Gran Class requires the payments of the Shinkansen express charge and Gran Class surcharge. The first train departs Tokyo Station at 6:16 a.m. and the last leaves at 9:04 p.m.. If you're a fan of scenic travel, be sure to stay awake through the last leg of the trip after the long strech of tunnels from Itoigawa Station. The view of the towering the Tateyama mountain range on a clear day is spectacular.
Frequent Thunderbird limited express trains run to Toyama from Osaka and Kyoto in Kansai, and will take you as far as Kanazawa, where you'll need to transfer to the Hokuriku Shinkansen. From there, Kagayaki trains are the most direct, whereas Hakutaka and Tsurugi trains will stop at ShinTakaoka Station along the way. The full trip will take at least three hours - not including transfer time - and costs ￥9430 one-way with reserved seats (free for JR Rail Pass holders). If you need to save a little money and time isn't an issue, an unreserved seat and a transfer to the IR Ishikawa Railway at Kanazawa will save you a marginal amount at ￥8350.
Toyama is also a morning stop on the Twilight Express overnight train from Sapporo, and Nihonkai overnight train from Aomori.
Seibu runs three daily buses (one of which is overnight) to Toyama from Ikebukuro and the Sunshine City Prince Hotel. It costs ¥7340 one-way (¥13210 round-trip) and takes seven hours to make the journey.
Several companies have bus runs from Osaka and Kyoto to Toyama. West JR Bus has a morning run (5 1/2 hours) and an overnight run (8 hours) from JR Osaka station, while Hankyu has an evening run (5 hours) and an overnight run (7 3/4 hours) from Umeda. The one-way cost for these lines is roughly ¥5200 from Osaka and ¥4800 from Kyoto.